What is laparoscopy? 

Laparoscopy is an operation done to look inside your abdomen with a thin instrument called a laparoscope. Through small holes in your tummy, the doctor looks, examines and operates (if needed) without making large cuts.

What are the advantages of a laparoscopic surgery?

In conventional surgery a long incision is made to gain entry into the abdominal cavity and operate. This result in increased post-operative pain, longer stay in hospital, delayed recovery, long and ugly scars, higher chance of wound infection and a higher chance of hernia. The incidence of all these are considerably reduced by a laparoscopic surgery.

What is to be expected after a laparoscopy surgery? 

There may be some discomfort in the abdomen for a day or two after laparoscopy due to the presence of some carbon dioxide gas. If the surgery is uneventful, feeding can be started on the same day once the patient has recovered completely from the effects of anesthesia. Before you go home you will be given advice about caring for the surgical wounds and when you will need to come back for a follow-up appointment or to have stitches removed. Complete recovery may take longer if any surgery has been carried out. It is important to follow the advice of your surgeon about physical activity, rest and returning to work.

What is a hysteroscopy operation? 

A hysteroscopy is an operation done to evaluate the inside of the uterine cavity and if necessary operate on the same.

How exactly is it done?

A narrow telescope with an illuminated lens at its end is introduced in the uterine cavity through the cervix or neck of the womb. For clear vision, the uterine cavity needs to be distended, which is done with gas or some fluid.

When may a hysteroscopy operation be needed?

Hysteroscopy for diagnostic purposes is usually performed to assess the cause of sub fertility or find out the cause of abnormal bleeding. It may also be done to remove polyps, resect septae, release adhesions and retrieve lost IUCDs.

What are the functions of the ovaries ?

Ovaries produce eggs and female hormones, which are required for normal menses till 46 to 50 years of age. At this age, all eggs are finished and no more female hormones are produced. This results in menopause. The woman stops having menses even if she has an intact uterus.

What is HRT ?

HRT is Hormone Replacement Treatment. Women take this when there are no female hormones in the body. This can be prescribed after natural menopause or after surgical menopause.

What are the advantages of HRT ? 

HRT reduces the hot flushes, night sweats, irritability and mood swings associated with menopause. It also reduces the risk of fracture among women after menopause.

How will I know that my menstrual bleeding is heavy?

30% women do not recognize heavy period bleeding. Passing of clots, prolonged bleeding for over a week and flooding are rough indicators of heavy bleeding. The most predictive indicator however is blood hemoglobin estimation. Normal values should be between 12 and 14gm%.

When does heavy bleeding need treatment?

When heavy bleeding is significant enough to cause anemia or severely interferes with one’s quality of life it should be treated. Abnormal heavy bleeding may need investigation and treatment when suspected to be associated with malignancy.

What could be the causes for heavy bleeding?

Hormonal imbalance is one of the most common reasons for heavy bleeding. Besides this, tumors of the uterus, infections, endometriosis, malignancies could also cause heavy bleeding.


Normally, during the menstrual cycle tissue builds up and breaks down within the uterus. In endometriosis, endometrial tissue (tissue from the lining of the uterus) is found outside the uterus. During the menstrual cycle this tissue builds up and breaks down in the same way but there is no way for it to leave the body. Women with endometriosis have symptoms ranging from mild to severe, although some women have no symptoms at all. Symptoms can include menstrual cramps, pain during sex, low back pain, constipation, pain with bowel movements, and infertility. Some women have chronic pelvic pain. Symptoms are usually at their peak just prior to and with the menstrual period.When your medical history and exam suggest endometriosis as a possibility, a laparoscopy may be offered to diagnose endometriosis.  Endometriosis is usually treated with medications first and if that is unsuccessful possible surgery.

What are FIBROIDS?

Fibroids are benign growths that develop from the cells that make up the muscle of the uterus. The size and location of fibroids can vary greatly. They may appear inside the uterus, on its outer surface, or within its wall.The two most common symptoms are abnormal uterine bleeding and pelvic pressure. Menstrual periods with fibroids may be very long and very heavy. There may be pressure in the pelvic region from the enlarged uterine size caused by the fibroids. However, many women with fibroids never have any symptoms at all.If you have uterine fibroids you should be checked by your doctor on a regular basis. Getting regular checkups and being alert to warning signs will help you be aware of changes that may require treatment.

What is high-risk pregnancy care?

It is the situation when there are complications endangering the health of the mother or the baby or both. The critical condition is best managed by a consultant obstetrician and gynecologist and others to ensure favorable conditions of the mother and the baby. It may spring up due to various reasons including medical health condition of the mother during pregnancy, maternal age and so on.

What is the scope of geriatric gynecology?

Women become vulnerable at the growing age and suffer several gynecological problems, which should be treated by specialist gynecologist. The normal lifestyle is hampered with certain problems such as physical inability, sensory deficits, uterine incontinence, and cognitive impairment and so on.

Is Infertility a medical problem related to the woman only?

Can you find out earlier if you have fertility issues?

You always have the option of asking your health care provider to conduct a complete examination to determine if either partner has possible fertility issues. You can also choose to do at-home fertility testing, available for both men and women.

What about fertility treatments?

Is In Vitro Fertilization Expensive?

The average cost of an IVF cycle in the United States is $12,400. Like other extremely delicate medical procedures, IVF involves highly trained professionals with sophisticated laboratories and equipment, and the cycle may need to be repeated to be successful. While IVF and other assisted reproductive technologies are not inexpensive, they account for only three hundredths of one percent (0.03%) of U.S. health care costs.

What if my eggs don’t fertilize?

Most eggs will fertilize when they are placed in a culture dish with several thousand normal sperm. This process is called “in vitro fertilization” or “IVF.” When there are not enough normal functioning sperm for IVF, fertilization will usually occur after a single live sperm is injected into each egg, termed “intracytoplasmic sperm injection” or “ICSI.” On rare occasions, fertilization does not occur even with ICSI, presumably because of a problem inherent to either eggs or sperm. In these cases, the use of donor sperm or donor eggs will usually result in fertilization. Your fertility specialist and IVF laboratory personnel will help you determine which approach is most likely to result in egg fertilization.
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